Biology, Engineering, Medicine and Science Reports <p><strong>Biology, Engineering, Medicine and Science Reports (</strong><strong>BEMS Reports</strong><strong>).</strong></p> <p>BEMS reports (ISSN number: 2454 - 6895) will consider original scientific and non-scientific contributions for publication in an Open access format. Research articles, Review articles, Letters to editor, Brief communications, Case reports, Book reviews, Technological reports, and Opinion articles in the areas of biology, engineering, medicine and science will be considered. It is published Semiannual and serves the need of scientific and non-scientific personals involved/interested in gaining knowledge.</p> <p>Journal URL: <a href=""></a></p> <p>All manuscripts submitted to BEMS reports will be editorially reviewed and published following declaration from authors about the originality, honesty and authenticity of the work. All the published manuscripts will be open to post publication open access public review for a period of four months. Post this open peer review process the manuscript will be evaluated by our editorial panel for assigning manuscript ID and its archiving in suitable database. Author/s is/are responsible for all statements made in their work and obtaining necessary permission to republish any previously published illustrations and/or other relevant materials.</p> en-US (Editor-in-Chief) (Webmaster) Thu, 02 Feb 2023 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 60 Analysis of ChatGPT Tool to Assess the Potential of its Utility for Academic Writing in Biomedical Domain <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background: </strong>ChatGPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) is an artificial intelligence chatbot which is designed to generate detailed text response and/or articulate answers to any query. Widespread concerns are expressed that such tools can be misused for academic writing. Hence this study was designed to test the utility and merit of ChatGPT for academic writing in biomedical sciences.<strong> Materials and Methods: </strong>five randomly selected quey topics were input into ChatGPT for a response. The ChatGPT response time, quality of the content and reliability were assessed. The ChatGPT response was transferred into a word file and the file was checked for originality using the Urkund software.<strong> Results:</strong> The response rate by ChatGPT was observed to be very quick i.e., less than 2 min to give a 300-500 words text output. Although the content of the response were systematic, precise and original, it lacked quality and depth of academic writing. Several shortcomings such as word count, referencing errors and lack of academic merit were observed. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Despite its significant limitations, ChatGPT has enormous potential as training and upskilling resource for academic writing, which rather than replacing biological intelligence will help in refining it if used appropriately under academic mentoring.</p> Arun HS Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 Biology, Engineering, Medicine and Science Reports Thu, 02 Feb 2023 00:00:00 -0500 Light without TORCH: Periventricular Haemorrhage and Group B Streptococcal Meningitis in a Neonate <p style="text-align: justify;">Post-infectious hydrocephalus is a common entity needing attention of paediatricians and neurosurgeons. Periventricular Haemorrhage (PVH) affects both preterm and term babies. Risk factors include male gender, short gestation, labour and vaginal delivery. Congenital infections such as Toxoplasma and CMV are associated with hydrocephalus and intracranial calcification. We present an unusual association of Group B Streptococcal infection with periventricular haemorrhage. A Caucasian female was born at 37 weeks gestation by normal vaginal delivery. Birth weight was 2.72kg and OFC was 33cm (50th centile). There were no antenatal problems or maternal infections. On day 2 of life, the patient presented with unusual cry, lethargy and reduced feeding. Group B Streptococcal meningitic septicaemia was confirmed with positive CSF and blood cultures. At 7 weeks, she presented with a two-week history of increasing head circumference. Ventriculo Peritoneal (VP) shunt was inserted for post-infectious hydrocephalus. There was difficulty in waking the patient up post-operatively and subsequent CT Brain showed the presence of multiple high attenuation foci in the periventricular region suggestive of haemorrhage or calcification. MR imaging confirmed numerous foci of abnormal signal intensity in the periventricular white matter, most likely blood products. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between Group B Streptococcal meningitis and PVH.</p> John C Duddy, Chandrasekaran Kaliaperumal, Muhammed T Sattar Copyright (c) 2023 Biology, Engineering, Medicine and Science Reports Thu, 02 Feb 2023 00:00:00 -0500 A Comprehensive Overview of Atomic Clocks and their Applications <p style="text-align: justify;">Time is ubiquitous, and integral to our everyday lives. Precise measurement of time intervals is basic to various activities humans are dependent up on, such as accurate positioning using satellite navigation, telecommunication, aviation, definition of International Time, secondary applications using positioning, military applications etc. Atomic clocks formulate the heart of precise time measurement and hence enable the positioning and navigation and niche time and frequency dependent technologies that we rely upon directly or otherwise. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of history of time measurement and evolution of clocks towards atomic clocks. It broadly covers various types of atomic clocks ranging from laboratory clocks to miniature commercial clocks along with the key applications with a focus on microwave atomic clocks (or frequency standards). Further, the satellite navigation systems operational around the globe by various countries and the types of clocks used for such navigation systems are briefly covered with a focus on the rubidium atomic frequency standard and other space clocks.</p> Thejesh N Bandi Copyright (c) 2023 Biology, Engineering, Medicine and Science Reports Thu, 02 Feb 2023 00:00:00 -0500 The “Mascara Sign”: Can Hounsfield Unit Help Diagnose Proximal Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Malfunction in Paediatric Population? <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Background</strong>: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts are prone to malfunction, often requiring multiple shunt revisions. This is associated with significant morbidity, particularly in the paediatric population. This study aims to explore whether the appearance of a proximally blocked Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt can be reproducibly established, using Hounsfield Unit of attenuation as a measure of density, from non-invasive CT imaging. The benefit of such a test would be to minimise the invasiveness of shunt surgeries on patients by localising the point of fault in a malfunctioning VP shunt. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The data set of 174 paediatric neurosurgical patients with documented proximal VP shunt blockage was identified, with 16 patients meeting the inclusion criteria. CT. imaging was reviewed with an average density obtained for each of the 16 patients. A retrospective analysis was performed using the exact Sign test to compare the median difference in average intraluminal densities using Hounsfield attenuation during proximal catheter obstruction. <strong>Results: </strong>There was no statistically significant median increase in intraluminal density after a proximal catheter obstruction (p=1.00). In analyzing the CT scans, we have also observed that in some patients, there is a recognisable but subjective change in appearance of the proximal catheter when blocked, the “Mascara Sign.”<strong> Conclusion: </strong>Our retrospective pilot study demonstrated that Hounsfield attenuation cannot be used as an objective guide to identify proximal ventriculoperitoneal shunt obstruction on non-invasive CT imaging in the paediatric population.</p> Nusrat Apsara, Adrianna Klejnotowska, Fiona Barley, Mohit Arora, Chandrasekaran Kaliaperumal Copyright (c) 2023 Biology, Engineering, Medicine and Science Reports Thu, 02 Feb 2023 00:00:00 -0500 Influence of Ambient Day Light Variations and Age on the Iris-pupillary Area Ratio in Beef Cattle <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Introduction:</strong> Iris-pupillary area ratio (IPR) is an objective and non-invasive index of autonomic nervous system activity and stress, which can be confounded by light intensity or age of an individual. Evaluating the influence of ambient light intensity variations or age on IPR is necessary to improve the validity of IPR for its clinical application in objective assessment of welfare and stress. <strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>In this study we evaluated the influence of ambient light intensity variations and age on IPR in beef cattle breeds (Limousin, Belgian Blue and Charolais) and analysed the data using correlation statistics. <strong>Results: </strong>The correlation between the light intensity (20 to 500 lux; r = 0.22,<em> p</em> = 0.08) or age (10 to 145 months, r = 0.20, <em>p</em> = 0.12) and IPR was weak and statistically not significant. A sub-group analysis assessing the influence of gender on correlation between the light intensity and IPR also was not statistically significant. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Our results suggest that within the ambient light intensity (20 to 500 lux) and age (10 to 145 months) the variation in IPR is minimal. Hence our results validate the merit of IPR in objectively measuring autonomic activity/stress and demonstrate the practicality of using IPR for welfare assessment under ambient light conditions in wider age cohorts of beef cattle.</p> Paulina Chojnacka, Arun HS Kumar Copyright (c) 2023 Biology, Engineering, Medicine and Science Reports Thu, 02 Feb 2023 00:00:00 -0500